The article shows how to use Active Directory Group Policies (GPOs) to configure proxy settings on domain-joined computers running Windows 10 and Windows Server 2019/2016/2012R2. These proxy server settings are used by all modern browsers, including Internet Explorer 11, Google Chrome, new Chromium-based Edge, Opera, and Mozilla Firefox (with the option Use system proxy settings enabled by default).
How to Set Proxy Settings via Group Policy?
To manage the browser’s proxy server settings on Windows 10/Windows Server 2016/2019 computer, you can use Group Policy Preferences (GPP) or Internet Explorer Administration Kit 11 (IEAK 11). In order to set proxy settings via GPO on users’ computers in the AD domain, perform the following actions:
- Open Group Policy Management Console (gpmc.msc) on a computer running Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016;
- Select the Active Directory organization unit (OU) for which you want to apply the new proxy settings. In this example, we want to apply a proxy settings policy to user OU (OU=Users,OU=California,OU=USA,DC=theitbros,DC=com);
- Right-click on OU and select Create a GPO in this domain and link it here;
- Specify a policy name, for example, CA_Proxy;
- Click on the policy and select Edit;
- Expand the following section: User Configuration > Preferences > Control Panel Settings > Internet Settings. Right-click and select New > Internet Explorer 10 (this policy will also be applied for the IE 11);
Note. In previous versions of Internet Explorer (6, 7, and 9) to configure Internet Explorer settings you needed to use the following section in the Group Policy Editor console: User configuration > Policies > Windows Settings > Internet Explorer Maintenance. However, in Internet Explorer 10 (firstly appeared on Windows Server 2012 and Windows 8) the Internet Explorer Maintenance (IEM) section was removed from GPO Editor. Moreover, this section also disappeared in Windows 7/Windows Server 2008 R2 after Internet Explorer 10 or 11 was installed. If you try to apply the IEM policy to a computer with IE 10 or 11, it won’t work;
- On the standard window with the Internet Explorer settings, go to the Connections tab and press the LAN Settings button;
- Tick the checkbox “Use a proxy server for your LAN” and specify the Address and Port of your proxy server (for example, 192.168.1.11, port 3128). To enable this option, press the F6 button (underline for that setting will change the color from red to green). To disable a specific policy setting press F7 (disable the option “Automatic detect settings” this way).
Tip. The green underscore for the IE parameter means this setting is enabled and will be applied through Group Policy. Red underlining means the setting is configured, but disabled. To enable all settings on the current tab, press F5. To disable all policies on this tab use the F8 key. Note the Bypass Proxy Server for Local Addresses option. When this policy setting is enabled, local resources are always accessed directly, not through a proxy server. Windows automatically recognizes the address of the format http://theitbros as local and IE when accessing them bypasses the proxy. However, it is important to note that the addresses of the format http://forum.theitbros.local or http://192.168.0.50 can’t be recognized by the system as a local. In order to avoid using a proxy to access such resources, you need to configure exceptions for them using the policy Do not use proxy servers for addresses beginning with (see below);
- If you need to specify the list of address exceptions, click Advanced. In the field Do not use proxy servers for addresses beginning with specify the list of IP addresses or domains. For example:
- Press OK twice to save settings.
Note. This rule only works for Internet Explorer 10 and Internet Explorer 11. For earlier IE versions, you need to create separate rules.
It remains to update group policy settings on client computers (with the command: gpupdate /force), and check proxy settings in IE (Control Panel > Network and Internet > Internet Options > Connections > LAN Settings).
If you want the proxy server settings to be applied to users based on the IP subnet where their devices are located, you can use the GPP Item Level-Targeting. To do this, switch to the Common tab in the policy settings and check the Item-Level Targeting option. Click on the Targeting button.
Select New Item > IP address ranges. Specify the range of IP addresses in your subnet for which you want to apply proxy settings.
Save the policy settings. Similarly, create several IE policies with proxy settings for different IP subnets.
As a result, the proxy settings for the users will be applied depending on the IP network (office) in which they work (convenient for mobile employees with laptops).
Tip. To configure the new IE policy from Windows Server 2008/R2, you need to download Administrative Templates for Internet Explorer, and copy files Inetres.admx and Inetres.adml to the folder %SYSTEMROOT%\PolicyDefinitions.
Also, you can configure IE proxy settings using the registry. Expand the GPP section User Configuration > Preferences > Registry and create 3 registry parameters in the following registry key:
- ProxyEnable (REG_DWORD) = 00000001;
- ProxyServer (REG_SZ) = 192.168.1.11:3128;
- ProxyOverride (REG_SZ) = 192.*;*.theitbros.com.
Proxy Settings for Computers in Group Policy
By default, IE proxy settings are per user. Using the GPO, you can apply proxy settings to all users of the computer. To do this, go to the following section in the GPO Editor console: Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components > Internet Explorer. Enable the policy Make proxy settings per-machine (rather than per user).
Note. The same setting can be enabled through the registry:
REG key: HKLM\Software\Policies\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings
DWORD parameter: ProxySettingsPerUser = 0
To apply settings to computer objects, also enable the policy Configure user Group Policy loopback processing mode under the Computer Configuration > Policies > Administrative Templates > System > Group Policy.
How to Apply WinHTTP Proxy Settings via GPO?
By default, the WinHTTP service does not use the proxy settings configured in Internet Explorer. As a result, some system services (including the Windows Update service: Wususerv) won’t be able to access the Internet.
Check current WinHTTP proxy settings with the command:
netsh.exe winhttp show proxy
Current WinHTTP proxy settings:
Direct access (no proxy server).
To enable WinHTTP proxy for a computer through a GPO, you must configure a special registry parameter.
First, you need to configure a proxy for WinHTTP on the reference computer. The easiest way is to import proxy settings from IE:
netsh winhttp import proxy source=ie
These settings will be saved in the WinHttpSettings parameter under the registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Internet Settings\Connections.
Now open your proxy GPO and go to Computer Configuration > Preferences > Windows Settings > Registry > New > Registry Wizard.
Select Local computer and specify the full path to the WinHttpSettings parameter.
It remains to click Finish, update the policy on computers, and make sure the WinHTTP proxy settings are applied successfully.
How to Prevent Users from Changing Proxy Settings in Browsers?
By default, if you configure the proxy server settings in Windows through the GPO, computer users can change the proxy settings themselves.
Note that proxy settings in Windows can be edited using both IE options and the modern Settings control panel.
You can prevent users from changing proxy settings in Windows using the “Prevent changing proxy settings” additional GPO option. This parameter is present in both the user and computer GPO sections.
- Computer Configuration > Policies > Administrative Templates > Windows Components – Internet Explorer
- User Configuration > Policies > Administrative Templates > Windows Components Internet Explorer
If you enable this policy and apply it to the domaincomputer, then the fields with proxy settings in Windows will be blocked, and the caption will appear below: Some settings are managed by your system administrator.
Hint. Settings in the Computer Configuration section take precedence over user settings.
Typically, you want to use a more flexible way of granting permissions to change proxy settings on computers. For example, you can restrict proxy settings for all users except members of the ca_workstation_admins domain security group.
- Create a new GPO with proxy settings (or edit an existing one);
- Go to Group Policy Preferences (User Configuration > Preferences > Windows Settings > Registry) and create two registry values:
The first parameter prohibits changing proxy settings:
Key Path: Software\Policies\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Control Panel
Value name: Proxy
Value type: REG_DWORD
Value data: 00000001
The second parameter blocks the launch of the IE window with proxy settings:
Key Path: Software\Policies\Microsoft\Internet Explorer\Restrictions
Value name: NoBrowserOptions
Value type: REG_DWORD
Value data: 00000001
- These policies will apply to all computer users;
- To prevent policies from applying to a specific security group, you need to copy these two parameters, set a larger Order, and change their values to 00000000;
- Then open the properties of each of these two registry settings, go to Common > Item level targeting > Targeting;
- Create a nem targeting rule: New > Security Group > provide a group name (ca_workstation_admins);
- Create a similar targeting rule for the second registry parameter;
- As a result, if a user from the specified group logs on to the computer, the proxy settings for him won’t be blocked.
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